By Dan Balz and Scott Clement january 21 at 12:01 AM
由 Dan Balz 和 Scott Clement 于 1 月 21 日上午 12:01 发表
President Trump arrives to speak to March for Life participants on Friday.A new Washington Post-ABC News poll shows that Trump’s approval rating has remained at a historically low level,compared with past presidents.(Jabin Botsford/The Washington Post)
美国总统特朗普周五向 March for Life 的参与者讲话。一个新的华盛顿邮报 – ABC 新闻网民意调查显示，与以往的美国总统相比，特朗普的支持率一直处于历史最低。（Jabin Botsford/华盛顿邮报）
Americans have reached a split-screen assessment of the state of the country at the end of President Trump’s first year in office,expressing the most positive views about the economy in nearly two decades while giving Trump historically low approval,according to a new Washington Post-ABC News survey.
根据一则新的华盛顿邮报 – ABC 新闻网调查显示，在特朗普执政第一年的年末，美国人已经对美国的状况形成了两种不同的评价，他们表达了近20年来对经济最乐观的看法，却给特朗普历史上低的支持。
This stark contrast between perceptions of the economy and assessments of the president continue a pattern that has existed since Trump was sworn in a year ago,that of a president whose personal actions and behavior have stirred controversy and created a political distraction in the face of steady growth,low unemployment and record gains in the stock market.
How voters weigh those two views will have a decided impact on the upcoming midterm elections.Democrats,who see an opportunity to take back control of the House and have a possible although uphill path to control of the Senate,will seek to make the November elections about Trump.Republicans hope perceptions of the economy will influence enough voters to hold down their expected losses enough to protect that House majority.
投票者怎样衡量这两种观点将对即将来临的中期选举产生决定性的影响。民主党看到了一个夺回众议院掌控权的机会，并且走上一个虽然艰难但是有可能的控制参议院的道路，他们将会参与 11 月份关于特朗普的选举。共和党人希望民众对经济的乐观看法，能够影响足够的投票人降低他们的预期损失，来保护他们的众议院票数。
The new survey finds that 58 percent of all Americans give positive rating to the state of the economy.That is the highest in a Post-ABC survey in 17 years and seven points higher than on the eve of Trump’s inauguration.At the same time,Trump’s approval rating has remained at a historically low level,compared with past presidents.Today, 36 percent approve of the job Trump is doing,while 58 percent disapprove,little changed over the past few months.Strong disapproval of the president,at 49 percent overall,remains twice as high as strong approval,which stands at 24 percent.
该新的调查发现，58% 的美国人对美国的经济给予正面的评价。这是华盛顿邮报 – ABC 新闻网 17 年调查中最高的，比特朗普就职前夕高 7 个百分点。与此同时，与往届美国总统相比，特朗普的支持率一直处于历史低位。当下 36% 的人支持特朗普正在做的工作， 58% 的人不支持，这在过去的几个月几乎没有发生变化。强烈反对特朗普的人占总体的 49%，强烈支持特朗普的人占总体的 24%，前者依旧是后者的两倍。
The public is evenly divided overall and deeply split along partisan lines on three major policy initiatives of the Trump presidency – the federal crackdown on undocumented immigrants,a reduction in federal regulations on businesses,and an effort to reduce the size of the federal workforce.More than 4 in 10 support those policies,and an almost-identical percentage oppose them.But the level of support is slightly higher than Trump’s approval rating,meaning that some Americans – particularly Democrats – who disapprove of the president support those policies.
公众在特朗普总统任期内的三项重大举措中，总体上被划分的很均匀，并且在党派路线上有很深的分歧，三大举措有：联邦打击无证移民，减少联邦关于商业的规定，减少联邦劳动力的规模。每10 个人就有 4 个人支持这些政策，而反对的人也是这么多。但是支持这些政策的比例，比支持特朗普的比例略高一点，也就是说有一些美国人，尤其是一些民主党派，他们不支持特朗普但是支持这些政策。
On two of the biggest policy debates of the first year of Trump’s presidency – health care and taxes – the public comes down in opposition to the direction pursued by the administration and congressional Republicans.A majority (57 percent) say the continuation of the Affordable Care Act is a good thing,in essence an expression of relief that Republicans failed to repeal Obamacare as they had long promised to do.
Meanwhile,on the big tax bill passed by congressional Republicans and signed by Trump at the end of last year, 46 percent say it is bad for the country while 34 percent say it is good for the country.That is slightly better than when people were asked whether they supported or opposed the measure as it was being debated.Notably, 20 percent say they have no opinion or are ambivalent about the tax bill,which is likely to become a pivotal battleground for public opinion between the parties ahead of the November midterm elections.
与此同时，大型税收法案被议会共和党在去年年末通过，并由特朗普签字，46% 的人认为这对国家是一件坏事，但是 34% 的人认为这对国家是一件好事。这比当人们被问起支持或者反对那些争议大的政策的时候要稍微好一些。值得注意的是，20% 的人表示他们对税收法案没有看法或很矛盾，他们很有可能成为 11 月中期选举之前，两党派争夺公共舆论的关键对象。
The gap between the president’s low approval and the somewhat hither level of support for some of this policies reflects the disconnect between how people see the president and how they view some of his priorities.For example,21 percent of Democrats who disapprove of the president say the crackdown on undocumented immigrants is a good thing for the country.The same percentage of disapproving Democrats say reducing federal regulations on business is good for the country.
For their part,Democrats are struggling to convey a message beyond being anti-Trump,with just over 3 in 10 saying they are presenting alternatives to Trump’s proposals.A 53 percent majority say the Democratic Party is mainly criticizing the president without offering alternatives.
As the president begins his second year in office,special counsel Robert S.Mueller III’s investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 campaign and possible cooperation,collusion or knowledge of what was taking place by associates of the Trump campaign continues.Trump has called the investigation a “witch hunt,” although it has produced two guilty pleas,including one from former national security adviser Michael Flynn,and charges against Paul Manafort,the president’s former campaign chairman,and an associate of Manafort’s.
特朗普总统任期的第二年，特殊顾问 Robert S.Mueller 三世对俄罗斯干扰 2016 年竞选，和特朗普与其伙伴在竞选中可能的合作、勾结或者信息进行着调查。该调查产生了两个有罪辩护，一个是前国家安全顾问 Michael Flynn，一个是总统的前竞选主席及其伙伴，但是特朗普称这个调查是“政治攻击”。
Today,50 percent of Americans approve of the way Mueller is proceeding compared with 31 percent who disapprove,with 19 percent expressing no opinion.In early November,58 percent approved of Mueller’s handling,but in recent weeks,Republicans have targeted the investigation as biased.Among Republicans and GOP-leaning independents,approval of Mueller has dropped from 39 percent in November to 30 percent in the new poll.
现在，50% 的美国人支持 Mueller 的做法而 31% 的人不支持，另外 19% 的人表示中立。 十一月初，58% 的人支持 Mueller 的做法，但是最近几周，共和党认为这个调查有偏见。共和党和共和党倾向之间是独立的，Mueller 的支持率已经从十一月份的 39% 降到了现在新民意调查的 30%。
Half of all Americans also say they believe Trump’s campaign colluded with the Russians,and an almost identical percentage say they believe the president tried to interfere with the investigation.Just over a quarter,26 percent,say they believe there is solid evidence to buttress this latter assessment.
The impact of Trump’s leadership on the public is mixed to negative.Six in 10 Americans say he has accomplished little or nothing.That is better than the 65 percent who said this in November,before passage of the tax bill,but it is a worse rating than received by former presidents Barack Obama and Bill Clinton at a similar point in their first terms.A bare majority (53 percent) say Trump’s actions have made no difference to them and their families.The rest are roughly split about the effect of his presidency on them,with 26 percent saying his actions have hurt and 20 percent saying they’ve helped.
特朗普的领导对公众的影响好坏参半。六成的美国人说他只做了一点点或者什么事情都没做，这比 11 月份税务法案通过之前，有 65% 的人这样认为要好一点，但是比前总统 Barack Obama 和 Bill Clinton 任期内第一年相似点上的评价要更糟糕。勉强过半的人（53%）说特朗普的行动对他们和他们的家庭没有影响。剩下的人由于特朗普执政的影响粗略地分为两类，26% 的人认为特朗普的行动有害，20% 的人认为特朗普的行动对他们有帮助。
On the economy,Trump receives less credit for the gains seen over the past than dose his predecessor,Obama.Fewer than 4 in 10, 38 percent,say the Trump administration deserves significant credit for the state of the economy while 50 percent say the Obama administration should get credit.Republicans and Democrats have sharply opposite views of where the credit should go.Among independents,one-third say Trump should get credit,compared with about half who give credit to Obama.
在经济方面，特朗普比前任总统奥巴马获得的信赖更少。不到 4 成（38%）的人说特朗普政府在国家经济方面值得肯定，然而奥巴马则得到了 50% 的人的信任。共和党和民主党对信誉的走向有绝对相反的看法。在无党派人士中，三分之一的人信任特朗普，而一半的人信任奥巴马。
About 1 in 4 Americans rate the economy positively while disapproving of Trump’s job performance.Three-quarters of them are Democrats or Democratic-leaning independents,and most of the group says Obama deserves credit for the current state of the economy,not Trump.Even more important is the fact that almost all of them say Trump has acted in a way that is not presidential,on indicator of how his personal behavior has clouded his presidency.
The survey finds that Trump and the Republicans have so far failed to shift public opinion on key elements of their agenda.Republican leaders have said that the new tax law-the party’s biggest accomplishment to date-will provide lower taxes for most middle-class families.But at this point,60 percent of Americans see the new measure overall as favoring the rich rather than the middle class or the poor.
Opposition to Trump’s proposal to build a wall on the U.S.-Mexico border to curtail illegal immigration remains strong,with 63 percent of Americans saying they are against it,including 52 percent who strongly oppose.But 71 percent of Republicans support the proposal,including 58 percent who support it strongly.The gulf between Republicans on one side and Democrats and independents on the other underscores why this part of border security has been a sticking point in budget negotiations between the two parties.
反对特朗普计划在美国和墨西哥边境修建高墙阻挡非法移民的声音依旧很大，63% 的美国人反对这一做法，其中 52% 的人强烈反对这一做法。但是 71% 的共和党人支持这一计划，其中 58% 的人强烈支持这一计划。共和党和民主党、无党派人士之间产生的巨大鸿沟，导致这部分的边境安全已经成为两党之间预算谈判的关键点。
Congress has been at a stalemate over the future of the Obama-era policy that protected from deportation undocumented immigrants who were brought into the country as children.The issue has been a point of contention in recent days as Congress has struggled to reach a spending agreement.Trump rescinded the Obama program last fall and asked Congress to come up with a solution by March.So far that fix has eluded negotiators.
Public opinion is clear on this issue,with 87 percent of Americans saying they support a continuation of the protection for those undocumented young people who have completed high school or served in the military and who have no serious criminal record.On this,there is bipartisan agreement among overwhelming majorities of Democrats,Republicans and independents.
Trump’s behavior and fitness shape the other track of his presidency,to his detriment.Seven in 10 Americans say he has acted in a way that is not presidential,while a quarter say his behavior has been fitting and proper for the nation’s chief executive.About 2 in 3 say the president’s use of Twitter has hurt his presidency.A bare majority(52 percent)say he is biased against black people.
The president in a recent tweet,which came after a renewed round of questions about his stability in light of a new book that described him in unflattering terms,said he was both mentally stable and a “genius” for being able to win the White House in his first try for public office.On those two questions,Americans are almost split evenly about his mental stability but by better than 3 to 1 say he is not a genius.
Trump recently underwent a physical examination that included a test aimed at detecting mild cognitive impairment.Ronny L.Jackson,the White House’s top physician,said the president had a perfect score on the test and dismissed questions about his mental competence.
The Post-ABC-poll was conducted Jan.15-18,2018,among a random sample of 1,005 adults reached on cell and landline phones with a margin of sampling error of plus or minus 3-5 percentage points.
Emily Guskin contributed to this report.